Storage and backup¶
Available file system¶
Stallo has a “three folded” file system:
- Global accessible home area (user area): /home (64 TB)
- Global accessible work or scratch area: /global/work (1000 TB)
- Local accessible work or scratch area on each node: /local/work (~450 GB)
The file system for user home directories on Stallo. It is a 64 TB global file system, which is accessible from both the login nodes and all the compute nodes. The size of the home directory’s for each user is 300 GB. It is not possible to extend the size. If you need more space, consider using /global/work (see below).
The home area is for “permanent” storage only, so please do not use it for temporary storage during production runs. Jobs using the home area for scratch files while running may be killed without any warning.
Due to stallo coming close to its storage limits, starting from July 2020 /global/work will be subject to a auto cleanup affecting all files older than 21 days.
Starting from first of July we will move all files which haven’t been accessed for more than 21 days to a trash folder from where they will be deleted in due time.
We ask you to classify your data in /global/work and move all files you need to keep to your home folder or other storage options like NIRD. In order to save storage space consider archiving your data in compressed form, see Compression of data.
In case you miss important files that have been moved, please write an email to email@example.com as we keep the files for some time and can restore them if needed.
There are two different work/scratch areas available on Stallo:
- 1000 TB global accessible work area on the cluster, accessible from both the login nodes and all the compute nodes as /global/work. This is the recommended work area, both because of size and performance! Users can stripe files themselves as this file system is a Lustre file system.
- In addition, each compute node has a small work area of approximately 450 GB, only locally accessible on each node. This area is accessible as /local/work on each compute node. In general we do not recommend to use /local/work, both because of (the lack of) size and performance, however for some users this may be the best alternative.
These work areas should be used for all jobs running on Stallo.
There is no backup of files stored on the work areas. If you need permanent storage of large amounts of data, please contact the system administrators: firstname.lastname@example.org
Disk quota is not enforced on work/scratch areas. Please use common courtesy and keep your work/scratch partitions clean. Move all files you do not need on Stallo elsewhere or delete them. Since overfilled work/scratch partitions can cause problems, files older than 14 days are subject for deletion without any notice.
Files on /local/work/ belonging to users other than the one that runs a job on the node will be deleted.
There is no real backup of the data on Stallo. However we do keep daily snapshots of /home and /project for the last 7 days. The /home snapshots are kept at /global/hds/.snapshot/
There is no backup of files stored on the /global/work and /local/work areas. If you need permanent storage of large amounts of data, or if you need to restore some lost data, please contact the system administrators: email@example.com
Closing of user account¶
User accounts on Stallo are closed on request from Uninett Sigma or the project leader. The account is closed in a way so that the user no longer can log in to Stallo.
If the user has data needed by other people in the group all data on /home/ is preserved.
Privacy of user data¶
There is a couple of things you as a user, can do to minimize the risk of your data and account on Stallo being read/accessed from the outside world.
- Your account on Stallo is personal, do not give away your password to anyone, not even the HPC staff.
- If you have configured ssh-keys on your local computer, do not use passphrase-less keys for accessing Stallo.
By default a new account on Stallo is readable for everyone on the system. That is both /home/ and /global/work/
This can easily be change by the user using the command chmod The chmod have a lot “cryptic” combinations of options (click here for a more in depth explanation ). the most commonly used is:
only user can read their home directory:
chmod 700 /home/$USER
User and their group can read and execute files on the home directory:
chmod 750 /home/$USER
User and all others including the group can read and execute the files:
chmod 755 /home/$USER
everybody can read, execute, and WRITE to directory:
chmod 777 /home/$USER
Management of lage files (> 200GB)¶
Some special care needs to be taken if you want to create very large files on the system. With large we mean file sizes over 200GB.
The /global/work file system (and /global/home too) is served by a number of storage arrays that each contain smaller pieces of the file system, the size of the chunks are 2TB (2000GB) each. In the default setup each file is contained within one storage array so the default filesize limit is thus 2TB. In practice the file limit is considerably smaller as each array contains a lot of files.
Each user can change the default placement of the files it creates by striping files over several storage arrays. This is done with the following command:
lfs setstripe -c 4 .
After this has been done all new files created in the current directory will be spread over 4 storage arrays each having 1/4th of the file. The file can be accessed as normal no special action need to be taken. When the striping is set this way it will be defined on a per directory basis so different directories can have different stripe setups in the same file system, new subdirectories will inherit the striping from its parent at the time of creation.
We recommend users to set the stripe count so that each chunk will be approx. 200-300GB each, for example
|File size||Stripe count||Command|
|1TB - 2TB||8||
Once a file is created the stripe count cannot be changed. This is because the physical bits of the data already are written to a certain subset of the storage arrays. However the following trick can used after one has changed the striping as described above:
$ mv file file.bu $ cp -a file.bu file $ rm file.bu
The use of
-a flag ensures that all permissions etc are preserved.
Management of many small files (> 10000)¶
The file system on Stallo is designed to give good performance for large files. This have some impact if you have many small files.
If you have thousands of files in one directory. Basic operations like ‘ls’ becomes very slow, there is nothing to do about this. However directories containing many files may cause the backup of the data to fail. It is therefore highly recommended that if you want backup of the files you need to use ‘tar’ to create on archive file of the directory.
Compression of data¶
Data which is not accessed frequently like results of finished projects should be compressed in order to reduce storage space.
tar to compress single files or whole folder
structures. To compress a single file:
$ xz file
$ xz --decompress file
To create a archive multiple files or folder:
$ tar cfJv archive.tar.xz files
It is recommended to use the file suffix
.tar.xz to make it clear
that archive was compressed with
To extract a archive (use
-C folder to extract the files in
$ tar xvf archive.tar.xz
Binary data and endianness¶
Stallo is like all desktop PCs a little endian computer.
At the moment in NOTUR the only big endian machine is njord.hpc.ntnu.no so Fortran sequential unformatted files create on Njord cannot be read on Stallo.
Both formats are supported on stallo, but you have to load its modules to use them:
$ module load netCDF
$ module load HDF5